Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Water Quality Index in Udupi District, Karnataka State, India.
Water is a precious natural resource which is required for survival of living things. Groundwater is a major source for a large range of beneficial uses. It is a vital parameter of the economy and the environment. Recent studies indicate that groundwater is over-exploited category and polluted to the maximum extent in Karnataka state. Water Quality Assessment and evaluation is of greater importance for treatment and supply of drinking water. Groundwater contributes 80% of domestic water requirement in the selected study area. In the study, the groundwater quality analysis was conducted for 106 water samples in pre-monsoon season to determine its suitability for drinking. This study involves assessing the water quality in comparison with drinking water quality standards BIS 10,500; 2012 by giving weightage and rating to each water quality parameter. For calculating WQI, 16 parameters such as totalCalcium, magnesium,hardness, pH, Bicarbonates, chlorides, total dissolved solids, fluorides, manganese, iron, nitrate, sulphate, turbidity, phosphate, potassium, and sodium were considered. The WQI of these samples ranges from 32 to 294. This analysis categories the area based on Water Quality Index. The result acts as a decision support system for ground water quality management. This kind of analysis helps in saving natural resources, providing good quality water and safeguarding the health of an individual. Statistical analysis such as standard deviation,median,mean, regression analysis, co-relation coefficient indicates the proper relationship between the various characteristics of water. The aim of the analysis is to ascertain the water quality index of the present study area and to classify the areas into different categories for domestic usage.