mRNALocalisation and Local Translation in the Nervous System
Locally synthesised proteins from mRNAs are essential and an efficient way for neuronal growth and repair. Researches have investigated how mRNAs are co-transcriptionally spliced, packed, and transported along the axon or dendrites and anchored to the active site in proximity of the cell membrane. Motor proteins can be used to transport mRNA. Regulation of the localisation process involves mRNA sequences, mRNA binding proteins and external cues. Diseases can be caused by irregular mRNA localisation (mis-localisation) such as dysfunctional mRNA binding protein and mutation of the genes encoding corresponding protein. Visualisation technologies have enabled us to find mRNA granule complex composition, regulating elements and localisation sites. Future research is required to answer several questions which are remained to be solved about the interaction between mRNA binding protein and mRNA.